Figure 2: Antitumor effects mediated by CAR-engrafted T cells. CAR-modified T cells can recognize tumor cells via binding of the CAR to its TAA independent of TCR-MHC/Peptide interactions. As a result T cells are activated and can efficiently eliminate tumor cells by the secretion of perforin and granzymes as well as the expression of FasL and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). In addition, other tumor-infiltrating immune cells can be activated by the secretion of various cytokines.