Figure 4: Efficient delivery of Ch-Fa-plasmid IL-1Ra DNA in vitro and in vivo. (a) In vitro, KB cells received either 5 μg of Ch-plasmid IL-1Ra DNA nanoparticles or Ch-Fa-plasmid IL-1Ra DNA nanoparticles in the presence or absence of folic acid supplement. Values are the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was assessed by unpaired Student t. (b) Three groups (each consisted of 3 rats) of the normal Lewis rats treated with the hydrodynamic femoral intravenous injection of 200 μg naked β-gal plasmid, Ch-β-gal plasmid DNA, and Ch-Fa-β-gal plasmid DNA, respectively. Serum samples were collected at day 24, 28 and 35, respectively. The levels of IL-1Ra protein in the cellular cultured media and serum were analyzed by ELISA. Values were shown as mean ± SEM of three rats. All values were subjected to t test and one-way ANOVA analysis. A value of 0.05 was considered significant.