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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 182413, 8 pages
Review Article

The Consequence of Immune Suppressive Cells in the Use of Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines and Their Importance in Immune Monitoring

Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Received 27 October 2010; Accepted 15 December 2010

Academic Editor: Timothy M. Clay

Copyright © 2011 Matteo Vergati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Evaluating the number, phenotypic characteristics, and function of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral blood could elucidate the antitumor immune response and provide information to evaluate the efficacy of cancer vaccines. Further studies are needed to evaluate the correlation between changes in immunosuppressive cells and clinical outcomes of patients in cancer vaccine clinical trials. This paper focuses on the role of T-regulatory cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages in cancer and cancer immunotherapy and their role in immune monitoring.