Table 2: Functional consequence in transgenic overexpression models.

Gene dosageExpressed alleleEmbryonic phenotypeEE phenotypeReference

2 X Cdkn1c
(1 copy BAC)
MaternalE13.5 embryos 80% WT
Proportional decrease in the weight of internal organs such as kidney, lung, and liver
No placental expression[9]

3 X Phlda2 and Slc22a18
(2 copy BAC)
MaternalE13.5 embryos similar to WT
E16.5 embryos 90% WT weight
E18.5 embryos 87% WT
E14.5 placentae 80% WT [10, 11]

2 X Dlk1/Gtl2
(4–7 copies BAC)
PaternalE16.5 embryos 110% WTNo placental expression [8]