Table 1: Summary of commonly used animal models.

General strategyexamplesHO related phenotypes?references

Animal models of hereditary HOHyperactive BMP receptorACVR1(R206H) mutation into zebrafishNo HO[20]
Conditionally expresses caALK2 in miceEmbryonic lethal, no HO[29]
Knocking out BMP inhibitorsNoggin-/- micePostnatal lethal, skeletal defects, HO?[30]
Chordin-/- micePostnatal lethal, skeletal defects[31]
Overexpressing BMPsK14-BMP4No HO[32]
Msx1-BMP4No observable defects[33]
Nse-BMP4Progressive HO, FOP-like[34]
Overexpressing BMP target genesCMV-MSX2, TIMPl-MSX2 or MSX2-MSX2HO-like[35]
Modifying BMP signaling indirectlyH2FosLTR-FosCalcified tumors similar to HO[37]
Fos-ES cell chimerasChondrosarcomas, similar to HO[38]

Animal models of acquired HOHeterotopic implantationBMP matrigel implantationHO[39]
DNA construct that produces BMPsHO[40]
Nanogel-cross-linking hydrogel as a scaffoldHO[41]
Bone marrow cellsHO[42]
Microporous calcium phosphate ceramicHO[43]
Hip arthroplasty modelHip arthroplasty in rabbitsHO[44]
Michelsson modelImmobilization manipulation in rabbitsHO[45]
Achilles tenotomy modelAchilles tenotomy in ratsHO[46]
Trauma-induced modelBlunt force in rabbit thighNo HO[47]
Repeated blunt force in sheep thighHO in small % of treated animals[48]
Inject irritants and other materialsInjection of 40% ethanolHO[49]
Injection of acid-alcoholHO in small % of treated animals[50]