Table 2: Effects of some treatment strategies on rodent models of metabolic syndrome.

Rodent modelInterventionsReversal or prevention of signs of metabolic syndrome and associated complicationsSigns of metabolic syndrome not affected by drug treatment

ob/ob miceTemocapril (ACE inhibitor) and olmesartan (AT1 receptor blocker) [37]Reduced blood pressure and ventricular fibrosisNo change in body weight and blood glucose concentrations
Resveratrol [76]Reduced blood glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin concentrations, improved glucose toleranceNo change in body weight and blood lipid concentrations

db/db miceAliskiren (renin inhibitor) [41]Reduced blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, macrophage infiltration in heart and coronary remodelling, improved endothelial function and glucose tolerance, increased pancreatic insulin content and beta cell mass, reduced pancreatic fibrosisNo change in body weight, visceral fat and liver weight

ZDF ratsSitagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) [54]Reduced body weight and blood pressure, reduced blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma insulin and serum inflammatory markers, reduced pancreatic fibrosis and inflammationNo change in total cholesterol concentration

OLETF ratsRosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist) [77]Reduced blood glucose, plasma insulin and serum inflammatory markersNo change in body weight

GK ratsLevosimendan (calcium sensitiser) [78]Reduced cardiac fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy, improved ventricular functionNo change in blood pressure
Hesperidin [67]Reduced serum insulin and blood glucose, serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol concentrations, increased serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations

AlloxanCucurbita pepo peel extract [79]Reduced blood glucose, plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, increased plasma insulin concentrations

StreptozotocinQuercetin [80]Increase in body weight, reduced serum glucose concentrations and increased plasma insulin concentrations, pancreatic beta cell protection

Fructose-induced metabolic syndromeLipoic acid [81]Reduced blood pressure, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, improved renal function

Sucrose-induced metabolic syndromeHippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) seed extract [82]Reduced blood pressure, reduced plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acids, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrationsNo change in body weight, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations

High fat-induced metabolic syndromeEnalapril (ACE inhibitor) [83]Reduced body weight, epididymal fat pads and plasma insulin concentrations, increased plasma leptin and cholesterol concentrations, improved vascular relaxationNo change in blood glucose, plasma triglyceride and plasma free fatty acids concentrations, glucose tolerance

High fructose, high fat-induced metabolic syndromePurple carrot juice [84]Reduced body weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, reduced plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids concentrations, reduced plasma inflammatory marker, improved ventricular function, reduced cardiac fibrosis and stiffness, reduced blood pressure, improved vascular relaxation, attenuation of fatty liver

High sucrose, high fat-induced metabolic syndromePiperine [85]Reduced body weight, reduced abdominal fat padsNo change in blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations

ACE - Angiotensin converting enzyme, AT - Angiotensin, ZDF - Zucker diabetic fatty, DPP-4 - dipeptidyl peptidase-4, OLETF - Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty, PPAR - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, GK - Goto-Kakizaki.