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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 473097, 10 pages
Review Article

Role of Natural Killer and Dendritic Cell Crosstalk in Immunomodulation by Commensal Bacteria Probiotics

1Laboratory of Immunology and Biotherapy, Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
2Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark

Received 17 February 2011; Accepted 1 March 2011

Academic Editor: Roberto Biassoni

Copyright © 2011 Valeria Rizzello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A cooperative dialogue between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) has been elucidated in the last years. They help each other to acquire their complete functions, both in the periphery and in the secondary lymphoid organs. Thus, NK cells' activation by dendritic cells allows the killing of transformed or infected cells in the periphery but may also be important for the generation of adaptive immunity. Indeed, it has been shown that NK cells may play a key role in polarizing a Th1 response upon interaction with DCs exposed to microbial products. This regulatory role of DC/NK cross-talk is of particular importance at mucosal surfaces such as the intestine, where the immune system exists in intimate association with commensal bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We here review NK/DC interactions in the presence of gut-derived commensal bacteria and their role in bacterial strain-dependent immunomodulatory effects. We particularly aim to highlight the ability of distinct species of commensal bacterial probiotics to differently affect the outcome of DC/NK cross-talk and consequently to differently influence the polarization of the adaptive immune response.