Joint Inflammation and Early Degeneration Induced by High-Force Reaching Are Attenuated by Ibuprofen in an Animal Model of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder
Distal radii and carpal bones stained with TUNEL (longitudinal sections of paraffin embedded radius and carpal bones). (a)–(f) Micrographs showing distal radius articular cartilage (indicated as c, for cartilage) in (a) NC (normal control), (b) TR (trained control), and (c) HRHF + IBU (performed the high-repetition high-force task for 12 weeks and received ibuprofen treatment daily in last 8 weeks), (d)-(e) HRHF rat (12 weeks HRHF rat with no treatment). (d) is a lower-power photo showing medial edge of radius and increased TUNEL stained cells at that edge as well as stained cells in adjacent articular cartilage. Inset shows higher-power image of indicated cell. (e) is a higher-power photo of same section shown in (d). (f) shows the radial articular cartilage from a different rat than shown in (d) and (e). (g) Image showing the lateral edge of the radius of an NC rat at the site of the attachment of the radiocarpal ligament. (h) Image showing the lateral edge of the radius of an HRHF rat at the site of the attachment of the radiocarpal ligament. (i) Higher-power photo of same cell as indicated in (f) with an arrow. (j) Higher-power photo of same cell as indicated in (h) with an arrow. Scale bars = 50 μm. b: bone, c: articular cartilage, lig: radiocarpal ligament, s: synovial ligament.