Table 2: Effects of helminth infections and helminth-derived products/molecules on improvement of symptoms in allergy-related experimental animal models.

Allergy modelSuppressive mechanismReference

Defined helminth molecules; (from helminth species)

smCKBP; (S. mansoni)Hapten-induced contact hypersensitivityNA3 [27]

Sm22.6, PIII and Sm29; (S. mansoni)OVA-induced AI1CD4+Foxp3+ Treg [65]

As-MIF; (A. simplex)OVA-induced AIIL-10, TGF-β, and Treg dependent [66]

PAS-1; (A. suum)APAS-3-induced AIPossibly IL-10 [67]
OVA-induced AHR2CD4+CD25+ T cell-, CD8+ T cell-dependent and IL-10/TGF-β-, IFN-γ-mediated [68, 69]

Nippocystatin (NbCys); (N. brasiliensis)OVA-induced AICathepsin B and cathepsin L-dependent mechanism [70]

AvCystatin (Av17); (A. viteae)OVA-induced AHRIL-10, macrophages, partially CD4+CD25+ T cells [71]

ES-62; (A. viteae)Oxazolone- (Oxa-) induced skin immediate hypersensitivity OVA-induced AHRMast cell mediated, TLR4-dependent [72]

Helminth infection and undefined products

S. mansoni infection; males and females + eggs laid in infection; males (no eggs)Pen V-induced systemic anaphylaxisIL-10-producing B cells [73]

S. mansoni infection; males (no eggs)OVA-induced AHRB cell- and IL-10-dependent suppression of pulmonary eosinophil infiltration [74]

S. mansoni infection; eggsOVA-induced AIEgg-treatment: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg [75]

S. japonicum egg antigen (SEA)OVA-induced AICD4+CD25+ Treg, possibly IL-10 [76]

A. suum adult worm extract (ASC)OVA-induced AHRNA [77]

Heligmosomoides polygyrus infectionOVA-induced AHRIL-10 [78]
OVA-induced AHR
HDM-induced AI
IL-10-independent, CD4+CD25+ T cells
IL-10-independent Breg cells
[79, 80]
Peanut extract-induced food allergyIL-10 [81]

H. polygyrus excretory-secretory product (HES)OVA-induced AIHES-induced Treg cells [82]

N. brasiliensis infectionOVA-induced AHRIL-10 from unknown cell source [83]

N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory product (NES)OVA-induced AINA (IL-10 independent) [84]

Strongyloides stercoralis infectionOVA-induced AINA[85]

Strongyloides venezuelensis infectionOVA-induced AINA [86]

T. spiralis infectionOVA-induced AICorrelated with increased IL-10, TGF-β, CD4+CD25+ Treg [87]

L. sigmodontis infectionOVA-induced AHRTGF-β, CD4+CD25+ Treg [88]

1 (AI): airway inflammation, associated with inflammatory cell influx into the lungs and local Th2 cytokine production.
2 (AHR): airway hyperreactivity, mainly described as lung bronchiole and smooth-muscle tissue remodelling leading to airflow obstruction, resulting in altered airway function. Chronic airway inflammation may lead to AHR, however, different immunopathological pathways govern the regulation of AI and AHR (discussed elsewhere [8993]).
3 NA data not available.