860732.fig.004a
(a)
860732.fig.004b
(b)
Figure 4: Spatial effect: (a) the estimated spatial effect as determined by a kernel density smoother. (b) The ranked cross-validation error as a function of the smoothing parameter (bandwidth) for the kernel density smoother. The cross-validation error is shown as an absolute error loss (“1”) and as a squared error loss (“2”).