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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 201689, 4 pages
Review Article

Cytokines and VEGF Induction in Orthodontic Movement in Animal Models

1Department of General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy
2Department of Oral Pathology, Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, Institute of Biochemistry, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
3INT-CROM, “Pascale Foundation” National Cancer Institute - Cancer Research Center, Via Ammiraglio Bianco, 83013 Mercogliano, Italy
4Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Naples, University of Naples “Federico II,” Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
5Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy
6Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Viale Regina Elena 287/A, 00161 Rome, Italy

Received 29 December 2011; Revised 13 March 2012; Accepted 14 March 2012

Academic Editor: Monica Fedele

Copyright © 2012 M. Di Domenico et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry that aims at the resolution of dental malocclusions. The specialist carries out the treatment using intraoral or extraoral orthodontic appliances that require forces of a given load level to obtain a tooth movement in a certain direction in dental arches. Orthodontic tooth movement is dependent on efficient remodeling of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, correlated with several biological and mechanical responses of the tissues surrounding the teeth. A periodontal ligament placed under pressure will result in bone resorption whereas a periodontal ligament under tension results in bone formation. In the primary stage of the application of orthodontic forces, an acute inflammation occurs in periodontium. Several proinflammatory cytokines are produced by immune-competent cells migrating by means of dilated capillaries. In this paper we summarize, also through the utilization of animal models, the role of some of these molecules, namely, interleukin-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor, that are some proliferation markers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and the macrophage colony stimulating factor.