Table 1: Bacterial plasminogen receptors.

ReceptorPrimary bacteriaPossible physiological functionReference

Enolase/SENStreptococcusPlg binding and uPA/tPA-mediated activation Fibrinolysis, subsequent extracellular matrix degradation, and transmigration. Involved in tumorigenesis, cancer proliferation, invasion, specific humoral and cellular immune response, myogenesis as well as hypoxic stress response[10]
GAPDH/SDH/PlrStreptococcusPlg binding and activation by uPA/tPA. Adhesion to uPAR, fibronectin[11, 12]
M proteins, PAMStreptococcusMajor virulence factor, promote fibrinolysis, antiphagocytosis, vascular leakage and tissue injury, proinflammatory properties, adhesion to host cell and tissues, transmigration and deep tissue invasion, immunoglobulin binding, acute rheumatic fever[13, 14]
OspA, OspCBorreliaPlg activation by host uPA, increased MMP expression, degradation of soluble and insoluble ECM components, endothelial monolayer penetration including blood-brain barrier, effective dissemination in host[1517]
HP-NAPHelicobacter pyloriFibrin clot stabilization, inhibition of fibrinolysis, possibly antiphagocytic, tissue factor synthesis and PAI2 stimulation[18]
PgbA/PgbBHelicobacter pyloriLysine-dependent Plg binding, tPA-mediated Plg activation[19]
DnaKBifidobacterium   animalis    subsp.   lactis Plg binding; upregulated in response to bile salts[20]
FlagellaEscherichia coliPlg binding and activation by host PAs[21]
FimbriaeEscherichia coli SalmonellaFibronectin binding, adhesion to ECM components/BM, facilitate penetration[22]