Table 1: Model for conceptualisation of meanings and uses attributed to DNA.

Representation of DNADescription of DNAMain agentsActions

Genomic minimalismMundane identifier, a mere record of identityCriminal justice system, civil servantsForensic use of DNA as a low risk/high benefit solution to criminal detection
Genetic exceptionalismExceptional richness of informationEthics committees, human rights groupsNeed to regulate its uses in medicine, insurance and employment, and in forensic applications
Biometric pragmatismPowerful biometric identifierInvestigators, criminal prosecutors, some academic forensic expertsExceptionalism is recognised, but as a resource for fighting crime rather than a restraint; no need to classify the information as requiring unique ethical treatment

Source: Williams and Johnson [17].