Table 1: Selected clinical studies using rhBMPs for human cleft reconstruction.

AuthorsYearDescriptionMain findings

Chin et al. [20]2005Case series using rhBMP-2 in 50 clefts, 43 patientsSuccessful clinical reconstruction in 49/50 clefts; no radiographic evidence provided; several cases treated with distraction osteogenesis
Carstens et al. [21]2005Case report using rhBMP-2 in one patientDistraction assisted in situ osteogenesis followed by rhBMP-2 collagen sponge implantation; new bone in cleft site used to graft onto and reconstruct deformed hemimandible
Herford et al. [22]2007Retrospective review using rhBMP-2 ( )Significant filling of maxillary cleft by new bone in eight out of ten patients in the rhBMP-2 experimental group at four months on CT
Dickinson et al. [23] 2008Randomized controlled trial using rhBMP-2 ( )Cleft repairs of skeletally mature patients found to have greater volume of defect filled by new bone measured by CT in the rhBMP-2 group (93%) when compared to the ABG group (63%), a unique finding
Fallucco and Carstens [24]2009Retrospective cohort study using rhBMP-2 ( )Vertical and transverse filling of maxillary cleft by new bone seen with spiral CT at six months in sixteen of seventeen cleft repairs
Alonso et al. [25] 2010Randomized controlled trial using rhBMP-2 ( )Average bone volume measured by CT 5.8% less in rhBMP-2-treated group than in ABG-treated group

ABG: autologous bone graft; CT: computed tomography; rhBMP: recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.