Figure 1: Cell viability and apoptosis detection in MDA-MB231 cells after α-mangostin treatment. (a) Cell viability was significantly lower in human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells treated with more than 12 μM α-mangostin for 24 or 48 h (* 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 , ** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 ). Five samples from each of α-mangostin dosage were examined. The IC50 concentration was determined to be 20 μM for 24 h; therefore, 20 μM α-mangostin was used for all in vitro studies. (b) Morphological changes in MDA-MB231 cells treated with 20 μM α-mangostin for 24 h, as compared to controls. Upper two panels show controls and lower two panels show α-mangostin-treated cells. α-Mangostin-treated cells appeared shrunken and chromatin condensation was observed (yellow arrow heads in lower right panel). Scale bars = 50 μm. (c) ssDNA levels were determined by ELISA and were significantly elevated in cells treated with α-mangostin for 24 h, as compared to control levels (*** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Data are presented as mean ± SD. For all analyses, five samples from control and α-mangostin-treated cells were examined.