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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 790987, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/790987
Review Article

On Enzyme-Based Anticancer Molecular Dietary Manipulations

Molecular Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Alma-Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy

Received 21 February 2012; Accepted 3 August 2012

Academic Editor: Regine Schneider-Stock

Copyright © 2012 Andrea Sapone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental observations has fuelled the belief that the high consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in nutrients and phytochemicals may help prevent cancer and heart disease in humans. This concept has been drastically simplified from the dietary approaches to the use of single bioactive components both as a single supplement or in functional foods to manipulate xenobiotic metabolism. These procedures, which aim to induce mutagen/carcinogen detoxification or inhibit their bioactivation, fail to take into account the multiple and paradoxical biological outcomes of enzyme modulators that make their effects unpredictable. Here, we show that the idea that the physiological roles of specific catalysts may be easily manipulated by regular long-term administration of isolated nutrients and other chemicals derived from food plants is not viable. In contrast, we claim that the consumption of healthy diets is most likely to reduce mutagenesis and cancer risk, and that both research endeavours and dietary recommendations should be redirected away from single molecules to dietary patterns as a main strategy for public health policy.