Table 1

ModelBehavioral symptomsNigrostriatal damageSynuclein aggregation/Lewy body formationUses of the modelDisadvantages

6-OHDARotational behavior after unilateral injectionLoss of DA innervation at injection site (striatum)No inclusionsScreen therapies that may improve PD symptoms. Study mechanisms of cell deathRequires intracerebral injection, very little synuclein involvement.
MPTPMotor impairments in primates
Less obvious motor impairments in acute rodent models
Loss of DA neurons dependent on dosing regimen, reaching 95% in acute high-dose conditions.
Reduced DA levels in striatum concurrent with midbrain DA neuron loss
Inclusions not prevalent. Few cases of synuclein aggregation in nonhuman primates, as well as increased synuclein immunoreactivity in rodents.Screen therapies that may improve PD symptoms. Study mechanisms of cell deathNonprogressive model of cell death. Inclusiones are rare.
RotenoneReports of decreased motor activity in rodentsLoss of DA neurons accompanied by reduced DA innervation in striatumSynuclein aggregation in DA neurons.Test neuroprotective compoundsSubstantial morbidity and mortality. Labor and time intensive.
ParaquatNo clear motor deficitsDecreased striatal TH immunoreactivityNo inclusions present, but increased synuclein immunoreactivity in DA neurons of the SNTest neuroprotective strategiesNot extensively tested. Effects in other neurotransmitter systems.
α-synucleinSevere motor deficits in the A53T model, less in the A30P modelGenerally no DA neuron degeneration observedSynuclein aggregation found in DA neurons, generally restricted to A53T modelStudy the role of synuclein aggregation in PD, as well as the normal role of synucleinGenerally no DA neuron death observed with synuclein models
LRRK2Few behavioral deficits seen in Drosophila mutation modelsNo effect on DA development or maintenance in knockouts, minimal levels of degeneration in mutation modelsGenerally not observedStudy the role of LRRK2 mutations related to PDGeneral lack of degeneration and general lack of synuclein aggregation.