Figure 2: Bottom-up and Top-down approaches to tissue engineering. In the bottom-up approach there are multiple methods for creating modular tissues, which are then assembled into engineered tissues with specific microarchitectural features. In the top-down approach, cells and biomaterial scaffolds are combined and cultured until the cells fill the support structure to create an engineered tissue. Nichol, J. W. and Khademhosseini, A. 2009, Page 10 Soft Matter. Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.