Figure 7: Edema-forming activity of native PhTX-I and their chemically modified derivatives with BPB, AA, NBSF, and NPSC (all 1 μg) and incubation of PhTX-I (1 μg/50 μL) with heparin and EDTA. The toxins were injected s.c. in the footpad of mice. Edema was evaluated after 1 h injection and expressed as percent edema. Each point represents the mean ± SEM of five animals.