Figure 1: The effect of E2 and the tested agents on cell proliferation. E2 alone induces cell proliferation of MCF-7 and T47D (a). Cells were pretreated with E2 (0.01 μM), and the tested agents (A) were added at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM at MCF-7 (b) and T47D (c). Results are expressed as mean ± SEM of the % change compared to the untreated cells and/or E2. Asterisks denote a statistically significant difference compared to control (untreated) cells. * , ** , and *** .