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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 179730, 6 pages
Review Article

Clinical Application of Vascular Regenerative Therapy for Peripheral Artery Disease

1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University, Fujigaoka Hospital, 1–30 Fujigaoka, Aoba-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 227-8501, Japan
2Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University Fujigaoka Rehabilitation Hospital, 2-1-1 Fujigaoka, Aoba-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 227-8501, Japan

Received 12 October 2013; Accepted 4 November 2013

Academic Editor: Masashi Toyoda

Copyright © 2013 Hiroshi Suzuki and Yoshitaka Iso. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Prognosis of peripheral artery disease (PAD), especially critical limb ischemia, is very poor despite the development of endovascular therapy and bypass surgery. Many patients result in leg amputation and, therefore, vascular regenerative therapy is expected in this field. Gene therapy using vascular endothelial growth factor is the first step of vascular regenerative therapy, but did not confirm effectiveness in a large-scale randomized comparative study. Based on animal experiments, bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs), peripheral blood MNCs were used as the cell source for regenerative therapy. Those cells were confirmed to be effective to decrease rest pain and ulcer size, but its effect was not fully satisfied. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected as an effective cell source for vascular regeneration and clinical studies are ongoing, because the cells are able to differentiate into various cell types and produce a significant amount of vascular growth factors. Of vascular regeneration therapy, peripheral MNCs and bone marrow MNCs were recognized as advanced medical technology but do not attain to the standard therapy. However, clinical use of MSCs have already started, and induced pluripotent stem cells are surely promising tool for vascular regeneration therapy although further basic studies are required for clinical application.