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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 182064, 14 pages
Research Article

Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

1Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
3Dental Research & Training Unit, Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 26 August 2013; Revised 28 October 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013

Academic Editor: Adair Santos

Copyright © 2013 Kwan Yuet Ping et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference ( ) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.