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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 198137, 8 pages
Research Article

Improving Drug Loading of Mucosal Solvent Cast Films Using a Combination of Hydrophilic Polymers with Amoxicillin and Paracetamol as Model Drugs

Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK

Received 3 April 2013; Accepted 28 May 2013

Academic Editor: Umesh Gupta

Copyright © 2013 Joshua Boateng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Solvent cast mucosal films with improved drug loading have been developed by combining carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), sodium alginate (SA), and carrageenan (CAR) using paracetamol and amoxicillin as model drugs and glycerol (GLY) as plasticizer. Films were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), folding resilience, swelling capacity, mucoadhesivity, and drug dissolution studies. SA, CMC, and GLY (5 : 3 : 6) films showed maximum amoxicillin loading of 26.3% whilst CAR, CMC, and GLY (1 : 2 : 3) films had a maximum paracetamol loading of 40%. XRPD analysis showed different physical forms of the drugs depending on the amount loaded. Films containing 29.4% paracetamol and 26.3% amoxicillin showed molecular dispersion of the drugs while excess paracetamol was observed on the film surface when the maximum 40% was loaded. Work of adhesion was similar for blank films with slightly higher cohesiveness for CAR and CMC based films, but the differences were significant between paracetamol and amoxicillin containing films. The stickiness and cohesiveness for drug loaded films were generally similar with no significant differences. The maximum percentage cumulative drug release was 84.65% and 70.59% for paracetamol and amoxicillin, respectively, with anomalous case two transport mechanism involving both drug diffusion and polymer erosion.