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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 206061, 5 pages
Research Article

Induction of Mast-Cell Accumulation by Promutoxin, an Arg-49 Phospholipase

1Clinical Experiment Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
2Allergy and Inflammation Research Institute, The Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, China
3Research Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China

Received 23 July 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editor: Luis A. Ponce Soto

Copyright © 2013 Ji-Fu Wei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Local inflammation is a prominent characteristic of snakebite wound, and snake-venom phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) are some of the main component that contribute to accumulation of inflammatory cells. However, the action of an R49 PLA2s, promutoxin from Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom, on mast-cell accumulation has not been previously examined. Using a mouse peritoneal model, we found that promutoxin can induce approximately-6-fold increase in mast-cell accumulation, and the response lasts at least for 16 h. The promutoxin-induced mast cell accumulation was inhibited by cyproheptadine, terfenadine, and Ginkgolide B, indicating that histamine and platelet-activating factor (PAF) is likely to contribute to the mast-cells accumulation. Preinjection of antibodies against adhesion molecules ICAM-1, CD18, CD11a, and L-selectin showed that ICAM-1, and CD18, CD11a are key adhesion molecules of promutoxin-induced mast-cell accumulation. In conclusion, promutoxin can induce accumulation of mast cells, which may contribute to snake-venom wound.