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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 250305, 6 pages
Research Article

Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

1Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Colonia Villa Quietud, 09460 Coyoacán, DF, Mexico
2Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ex-Hacienda San Juan Molino Carretera Estatal Tecuexcomac-Tepetitla Km 1.5, 90700 Tlax, Mexico

Received 20 June 2013; Accepted 14 August 2013

Academic Editor: Ana Moldes

Copyright © 2013 A. Solís et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap.