Table 1: Methods of intravesical hyperthermia delivery.

DeviceDelivery methodSummaryAdvantageReferences

Synergo systemLocalThermocouple-controlled Foley catheter delivers HT (41–44°C) by direct irradiation to IVC in bladder at 915 MHz.Targeted delivery, minimal surrounding tissue injury[29]

BSD-2000 systemRegional24-array dipole antennas around the pelvis delivers HT (40–45°C) to bladder containing IVC at 70–120 MHz.Can be used simultaneously with chemotherapy or radiation.[30, 31]

AMC4/AMC8 systemRegionalSingle/double ring of four/eight 70 MHz waveguides delivery HT (40–45°C) to pelvic regionCan be used simultaneously with chemotherapy or radiation.[3234]

BWT systemLocalA 18-French flexible Foley continuously circulates heated (44.5°C) IVC to bladder No hot or cold spots and hence no burning of outer bladder wall

Sonotherm 1000Regional16-sector 1 MHz or 3.4 MHz ultrasound applicator system delivers locoregional 42-43°C heat to tumors. Adjustable frequency applicators allow depth of heat[35, 36]