BioMed Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

Table 2

History of drug abuse of 23 tramadol abusers.


Duration of tramadol abuse (month)
61.8 ± 30.2
 Median (min–max)63.0 (5–112)
Age of first tramadol use (year)
18.3 ± 4.0
 Median (min–max)18.0 (13–28)
Purpose of first tramadol use
 Instigating by friends or other  acquaintances14
 Curiosity or simulating9
 Medical purpose2
 Experienced the spiritual effects of drugs  (euphoria)2
 Relieving negative emotions2
 Influence of family members1
Route of administration
Median dose of tramadol use (mg/per time)
 At the outset (range) 250.0 (50–1000)
 Regular dose (range)750.0 (100–5000)
 Maximum (range)2000.0 (250–10000)
Source of tramadol
 Private clinic or pharmacy12
 Normal pharmacy6
 Black market6
 Relatives or friends1
Voluntary detoxification for one time or above16

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