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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 293627, 7 pages
Research Article

Effect of Cyclic Precalcification of Nanotubular TiO2 Layer on the Bioactivity of Titanium Implant

Department of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Deokjin-dong, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea

Received 8 April 2013; Revised 15 July 2013; Accepted 31 July 2013

Academic Editor: Ulrich Kneser

Copyright © 2013 Il Song Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of cyclic precalcification treatment to impart bioactive properties for titanium implants. Before precalcification, the titanium implants were subjected to blasting using hydroxyapatite (HAp), a resorbable blasting medium (RBM treated), and anodized using an electrolyte containing glycerol, H2O, and NH4F. Precalcification treatment was performed by two different methods, namely, continuous immersion treatment (CIT) and alternate immersion treatment (AIT). In CIT, the RBM treated and anodized titanium implants were immersed in 0.05 M NaH2PO4 solution at 80°C and saturated Ca(OH)2 solution at 100°C for 20 min, whereas during AIT, they were immersed alternatively in both solutions for 1 min for 20 cycles. Anodizing of the titanium implants enables the formation of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes. Cyclic precalcification treatment imparts a better bioactive property and enables an increase in activation level of the titanium implants. The removal torque values of the RBM treated, CIT treated, and AIT treated titanium implants are  Ncm,  Ncm, and  Ncm, respectively. The findings of the study indicate the cyclic precalcification in an effective surface treatment method that would help accelerate osseointegration and impart bioactive property of titanium implants.