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This article has been retracted as it is found to contain a substantial amount of material from published papers. The three most plagiarized papers are: (1) I. Sekirov, S. L. Russell, L. C. Antunes and B. B. Finlay, “Gut microbiota in health and disease,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 859–904, 2010. (2) V. M. Hubbard and K. Cadwell, “Viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn’s disease,” Viruses, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 1281–1311, 2011. (3) B. Khor, A. Gardet and R. J. Xavier, “Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nature, vol. 474, no. 7351, pp. 307–317, 2011.

BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 297501, 11 pages
Review Article

Genetic and Functional Profiling of Crohn's Disease: Autophagy Mechanism and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

1Institute for Maternal and Child Health—IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo” of Trieste, Via dell’Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy
2University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy

Received 27 February 2013; Accepted 20 March 2013

Academic Editor: Enrique Medina-Acosta

Copyright © 2013 Annalisa Marcuzzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient.