Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 315848, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/315848
Research Article

Therapeutic Effect of Exendin-4, a Long-Acting Analogue of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Nerve Regeneration after the Crush Nerve Injury

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
2Division of Environmental Medicine, National Defense Medical College Research Institute, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
3Orthopedic Surgery, Japan Self Defense Forces Central Hospital, 1-2-24 Ikejiri, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-0001, Japan
4Department of Medicine, University of Otago Medical School, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
5The Nukada Institute for Medical and Biological Research, 5-18 Inage-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0035, Japan

Received 26 April 2013; Revised 11 July 2013; Accepted 14 July 2013

Academic Editor: Levent Sarıkcıoğlu

Copyright © 2013 Koji Yamamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Noble, C. A. Munro, V. S. S. V. Prasad, and R. Midha, “Analysis of upper and lower extremity peripheral nerve injuries in a population of patients with multiple injuries,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. J. Kieffer and J. F. Habener, “The glucagon-like peptides,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 876–913, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Eng, “Exendin peptides,” Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 147–149, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Goke, H.-C. Fehmann, T. Linn et al., “Exendin-4 is a high potency agonist and truncated exendin-(9–39)-amide an antagonist at the glucagon-like peptide 1-(7–36)-amide receptor of insulin-secreting β-cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 26, pp. 19650–19655, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Perry and N. H. Greig, “The glucagon-like peptides: a double-edged therapeutic sword?” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 377–383, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Bertilsson, C. Patrone, O. Zachrisson et al., “Peptide hormone exendin-4 stimulates subventricular zone neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain and induces recovery in an animal model of Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 326–338, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Holst, “Glucagon-like peptide-1: from extract to agent. The Claude Bernard Lecture, 2005,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 253–260, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Martin, E. Golden, O. D. Carlson et al., “Exendin-4 improves glycemic control, ameliorates brain and pancreatic pathologies, and extends survival in a mouse model of huntington's disease,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 318–328, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Perry, H. W. Holloway, A. Weerasuriya et al., “Evidence of GLP-1-mediated neuroprotection in an animal model of pyridoxine-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 293–301, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Perry, D. K. Lahiri, D. Chen et al., “A novel neurotrophic property of glucagon-like peptide 1: a promoter of nerve growth factor-mediated differentiation in PC12 cells,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 300, no. 3, pp. 958–966, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Kato, K. Nemoto, K. Nakanishi et al., “Nonviral HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan) liposome-mediated retrograde gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor into rat nervous system promotes functional and histological recovery of the crushed nerve,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 299–310, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Amako and K. Nemoto, “Influence of water immersion stress on peripheral nerve recovery in the rat,” Journal of Orthopaedic Science, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Bain, S. E. Mackinnon, and D. A. Hunter, “Functional evaluation of complete sciatic, peroneal, and posterior tibial nerve lesions in the rat,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 129–136, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Ochi, M. Noda, K. Nakamitsu et al., “Promotion of sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a new neurotrophic pyrimidine derivative MS-430,” General Pharmacology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Canan, H. H. Bozkurt, M. Acar et al., “An efficient stereological sampling approach for quantitative assessment of nerve regeneration,” Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 638–649, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Kaplan, S. Geuna, G. Ronchi, M. B. Ulkay, and C. S. von Bartheld, “Calibration of the stereological estimation of the number of myelinated axons in the rat sciatic nerve: a multicenter study,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 90–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Kaplan, A. Pişkin, M. Ayyildiz et al., “The effect of melatonin and platelet gel on sciatic nerve repair: an electrophysiological and stereological study,” Microsurgery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 306–313, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Makoukji, M. Belle, D. Meffre et al., “Lithium enhances remyelination of peripheral nerves,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 3973–3978, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Holscher, “Incretin analogues that have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes hold promise as a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease,” Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 109–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. Buehler, A. V. Seaber, and J. R. Urbaniak, “The relationship of functional return to varying methods of nerve repair,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. De Medinaceli, W. J. Freed, and R. J. Wyatt, “An index of the functional condition of rat sciatic nerve based on measurements made from walking tracks,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 634–643, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. K. Terzis and K. J. Smith, “Repair of severed peripheral nerves: comparison of the 'de Medinaceli' and standard microsuture methods,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 672–680, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. M. T. Hare, P. J. Evans, S. E. Mackinnon et al., “Walking track analysis: a long-term assessment of peripheral nerve recovery,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 251–258, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Teramoto, N. Miyamoto, K. Yatomi et al., “Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, provides neuroprotection in mice transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1696–1705, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. J. Liu, H. Y. Jin, K. A. Lee, S. H. Xie, H. S. Baek, and T. S. Park, “Neuroprotective effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, synthetic exendin-4, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 1410–1420, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. Park, H. W. Kim, S. H. Ko et al., “Long-term treatment of glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exendin-4 ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through improving metabolic anomalies in db/db mice,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1227–1238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Lei, G. Xu, and W. Ye, “Protection of exendin-4 analogue in early experimental diabetic retinopathy,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 247, no. 5, pp. 699–706, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. G. Jolivalt, M. Fineman, C. F. Deacon, R. D. Carr, and N. A. Calcutt, “GLP-1 signals via ERK in peripheral nerve and prevents nerve dysfunction in diabetic mice,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 990–1000, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Strickland, “Peripheral regeneration,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 30, pp. 209–233, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Garbay, A. M. Heape, F. Sargueil, and C. Cassagne, “Myelin synthesis in the peripheral nervous system,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 267–304, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus