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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 316185, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/316185
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Evaluations of Myrtle Extract, a Plant Traditionally Used for Treatment of Parasitic Disorders

1Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6354, Tehran 1516745811, Iran
2School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 30 September 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editor: Christophe Duranton

Copyright © 2013 Farzaneh Naghibi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei  in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day) in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project.