Figure 1: Group comparison of cortisol levels at awakening and throughout the day. Awakening and diurnal cortisol levels of subjects in the EO-CD group and the HC group are depicted. Significantly lower cortisol levels in the EO-CD group are detected at 12:00 only. Saliva cortisal measures were performed at awakening, +30 min, +60 min, at 12:00, 15:20, 15:40 (mean value of 15:20 and 15:40 depicted), and at 19:30. HC group = healthy control group; EO-CD = early-onset conduct disorder group; means and standard error bars are depicted.