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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 452750, 9 pages
Research Article

Biomimetic Mineralization on a Macroporous Cellulose-Based Matrix for Bone Regeneration

1Department of Organic Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu pl. 19, 50254 Kaunas, Lithuania
2Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-392 Porto, Portugal
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu str. 2, 50009 Kaunas, Lithuania
4Human Pathology Department, Dental School, University of Messina, Messina IT, Policlinico G. Martino, Via Consolare Valeria, 98100 Messina, Italy

Received 10 June 2013; Revised 15 August 2013; Accepted 21 August 2013

Academic Editor: Esmaiel Jabbari

Copyright © 2013 Odeta Petrauskaite et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study is to investigate the biomimetic mineralization on a cellulose-based porous matrix with an improved biological profile. The cellulose matrix was precalcified using three methods: (i) cellulose samples were treated with a solution of calcium chloride and diammonium hydrogen phosphate; (ii) the carboxymethylated cellulose matrix was stored in a saturated calcium hydroxide solution; (iii) the cellulose matrix was mixed with a calcium silicate solution in order to introduce silanol groups and to combine them with calcium ions. All the methods resulted in a mineralization of the cellulose surfaces after immersion in a simulated body fluid solution. Over a period of 14 days, the matrix was completely covered with hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite formation depended on functional groups on the matrix surface as well as on the precalcification method. The largest hydroxyapatite crystals were obtained on the carboxymethylated cellulose matrix treated with calcium hydroxide solution. The porous cellulose matrix was not cytotoxic, allowing the adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblastic cells. Comparatively, improved cell adhesion and growth rate were achieved on the mineralized cellulose matrices.