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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 452857, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Urinary Bladder during Voiding in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Preliminary Study

1Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, P.O. Box 9101, Route 659, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2Department of Urology, Sohag University Hospital, Sohag University, The University Street, Nasser City, 82524 Sohag, Egypt
3Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Attikon University General Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, Rimini 1 Street, Haidari 124 62, Athens, Greece

Received 2 April 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Kazem M. Azadzoi

Copyright © 2013 Fawzy F. Farag et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To determine the difference in response of NIRS of the bladder during voiding between men with and without BOO.LUTS. Methods. A prospective, case series, study included 36 men with LUTS. Patients completed the IPSS questionnaire; prostate volumes were measured sonographically. Patients underwent pressure flow study (PFS) with simultaneous NIRS of the bladder. Amplitudes of HHb, O2Hb, and were calculated at , relative to baseline. Patients were urodynamically classified as obstructed and unobstructed. Recursive partition analysis (RPA) was performed to reclassify patients using NIRS amplitudes, followed by combined data of NIRS amplitudes, prostate volume, IPSS, and to determine the best predictor(s) of BOO. Results. PFS classified 28 patients as obstructed and 8 as unobstructed. The median HHb amplitude was significantly higher in obstructed group. RPA of NIRS amplitudes correctly reclassified 89% of patients [AUC: 0.91]. RPA of the combined IPSS, prostate volume, PVR, and correctly reclassified 72% of patients [AUC: 0.84]. When NIRS amplitudes were added to this combination, RPA revealed a significantly ( ) higher rate of correct reclassification in 89% of patients with 89.3% sensitivity and 88% specificity for obstruction [AUC: 0.96]. Conclusion. NIRS data can be of diagnostic value for BOO in men with LUTS.