(a) Conditioned flexion reflex at 70 ms
(b) Conditioned flexion reflex at 110 ms
Figure 3: Changes in cortical control of the flexion reflex after 30 sessions of BWS robotic gait training during robotic-assisted stepping. The mean normalized long-latency tibialis anterior (TA) flexion reflex following single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the right primary motor cortex at 0.9 × TA motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at the conditioning-test interval of 70 (a) and 110 (b) ms is indicated as a function of the step cycle. Asterisks indicate suppressive and/or facilitatory conditioned flexion reflexes after locomotor training compared to those observed before training based on the value computed from pairwise multiple comparisons (two-way ANOVA along with Holm-Sidak tests). Grey squares denote the stance phase. Error bars denote the SEM.