Table 1: An account of stem cell-like SP phenotype in malignancies.

Tumor type(%) of sp cellsCellular phenotype and features of sp cellsRef.

Breast0.18 ± 0.45%CD44+/CD24−/vimentin higher and lower levels of cytokeratins compared to non-SP cells.[53] 

Lung adenocarcinoma24%SP cells showed chemoresistance to platinum drugs and high expression of genes related to drug resistance (AKR1C1/C2 and NR0B1) or cancer metastasis (TM4SF1) & high mRNA expression of ABCG2, ABCC2.[55]

Endometrial cancer0.02%Higher expression levels of vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and collagen III in SP induced tumors.[56, 57]

Ewing’s sarcoma1.2%High clonogenicity, invasiveness, and ABC transporter expression in SP cells than non-SP[58]

Glioblastoma0.4–1.5%CD133+ SP cells coexpressed nestin and generated tumors in brains of NOD/SCID mice.[59]

Prostate cancer0.1–0.9%CD133+, CD45−, CD81+, Sca-1+
SP clonal cells secreted (TGF-beta1)

Pancreatic cancer2.1–8.7%CD133+ SP cells showed significant levels of mRNA expression for CD133, ABCG2, and Notch1 than non-SP cells.[61]

Leukemia0.008–4.1%CD34(+) CD38(−) CD123+[62]

Hepatocellular carcinoma0.1–28.7%SP cells showed high chemoresistance, self-renewal, clonogenicity, and ABCG2 expression.[63]

Medulloblastoma12.4–39.1%CD133+ SP cells with increased cell size, decreased S-phase, and proliferative capacity.[64]

Renal epithelial malignancy5.9 ± 0.9%SP enriched for quiescent cells with high proliferative capacity and stem-like properties.[65]

Head & neck squamous Carcinoma0.69–0.9%Activation of EGFR, a gene implicated in HNSCC tumorigenesis
leads to increased SP.

Urological malignancy0.1–0.6%SP fraction has enhanced colony forming and proliferative capacity.[66]

Ovarian cancer0.9%SP cells showed higher levels of Oct3/4 and colony formation efficiency than non-SP cells.[67]

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma2.6%CK19 highly expressed SP cells were more chemo/radiation resistant related to the expression of ABCG2/smoothened protein.[68]

Melanoma0.96%CD44+/CD133+/CD24+/ABCG2 high SP cells.[69]

Laryngeal cancer1.7–17%SP cells had high self-renewal, proliferation, radiation resistance, and tumorigenicity.[70]

Gastric cancer0.001–12%High expression levels of adhesion molecules 2, 5, 3 and 5 integrins, CD44, Oct3/4, and Sox2 in SP cell-injected tumors.[71]