Table 1: 14-3-3 isoforms in neurodegeneration.

14-3-3 isoformIsoform-specific histologyInteracting partner and disease involvement

Tangles in AD
LBHI in ALS
GCI in MSA
LRRK2; PD
NFL mRNA; ALS
Tau, SPRK2, FOXO1; AD
Ataxin-1; SCA1
ASK1; Epilepsy
GFAP; MS

Tangles in AD
Lewy bodies in PD
LBH in ALS
GCI in MSA
LRRK2; PD
NFL mRNA; ALS

Tangles in AD
Lewy bodies in PD
GCI in MSA
LRRK2; PD
Cdc25, SPRK2; AD
Ataxin-1; SCA1
GFAP; MS

Tangles in AD
Lewy bodies in PD
Amyloid plaque in CJD
GCI in MSA
Tyrosine hydroxylase, LRRK2; PD
NFL mRNA; ALS
GSK3 , tau; AD
Ataxin-1; SCA1
Huntingtin; HD
Bad, Bax; Ischemia
GFAP; MS

Parkin, LRRK2; PD
NFL mRNA; ALS
Tau; AD

Tangles in ADSPRK2; AD

Lewy bodies in PD
GCI in MSA
Bad, Bax, LRRK2; PD
NFL mRNA; ALS