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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 571912, 6 pages
Review Article

Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and School of Medicine, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Ministry of Justice, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
3Institute of Emergency Medicine, 42 000 Varazdin County, Croatia

Received 5 October 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013

Academic Editor: Gérald E. Piérard

Copyright © 2013 Romana Ceovic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman’s lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.