Table 1: Baseline characteristics of women in the intervention and control group.

VariablesIntervention group
( ), %
Control group
( ), %
P value


Mean age (years) (±SD) 0.455
Ethnicity: Malay85.183.20.376
Religion: Muslim85.184.70.572
Marital status: married98.598.51.000‡‡

Socioeconomic status

Educational level0.939
 Graduate degree90.089.1
 Master degree7.58.4
Mean household monthly income (MYR) (±SD) 0.486

Reproductive history

Number of pregnancies (including abortion)0.539
 Never pregnant11.99.9
Mean number of pregnancies (±SD) 0.784
Practicing contraceptive currently: yes30.332.70.615
Having any genital symptoms currently: no82.182.70.878
Ever had Pap test (≥3 years ago)34.341.60.133
Stages of cervical screening behavior change0.051

Physical health

Body mass index (kg/m2)0.944
 Normal (18.5–22.9)31.332.2
 Underweight (<18.5)5.05.4
 Overweight and obese (≥23)63.761.9
Ever smoke: no100.099.51.000‡‡
Practice physical activity as recommended: yes10.99.40.609
Perform breast self-examination monthly: yes45.848.00.651
Perform mammogram as recommended0.202
 Not applicable67.263.4
Had medical checkup in last 3 years: yes49.853.00.518
Having any chronic diseases: yes19.422.80.407

Social health

Number of marriages: once‡‡
Mean age of first marriage (years) (±SD) 0.082
Mean age of first sexual intercourse (years) (±SD) 0.123
Age of first pregnancy (years)0.091
 Never pregnant11.99.9
Mean age of first pregnancy (years) (±SD) 0.063
Ever had a sexual health education: yes34.835.60.864
Practicing conservative methods to prevent cervical cancer:
 Safe sex94.596.00.474
 Husband/partner circumcised86.186.60.869
 Prohibit extramarital sex95.596.00.796
Having health insurance: yes66.270.30.413

Notes: ±SD standard deviation, chi square test, ‡‡Fisher’s exact test, t-test, MYR denotes Malaysian ringgit (where 1 MYR equals 3 USD).