Table 2: Mechanisms of sex determination and experimental sex reversal in vertebrates (adopted from [13]).

Mechanism of sex determinationSpeciesEffectorsExperimental evidence of sex reversal

TSD (t°C)American alligator and Red-eared slider turtle Aromatase or Estradiol ( )F-M: administration of an aromatase inhibitor introduced at F-producing temperatures; M-F: administration to eggs incubated at male-producing temperatures

GSD (XX/XY; ZZ/ZW)Oryzias latipes, Bufo bufo, and  Xenopus laevis Androgene or

Gallus gallus Aromatase or Estradiol ( )F-M: in ovo administration of an aromatase inhibitor to ZW animals; M-F: in ovo administration of to ZZ individuals

GSD (XX/XY)Macropus eugenii and Mus musculus Sry F-M: treatment of XX individuals with M llerian inhibiting substance (MIS) to cause germ loss, addition of Sry gene in XX embryos; loss of through ERα KO causes transdifferentiation of the ovary to testis-like structures in the adult; M-F: inactivation of Sry gene in XY embryos, administration to XY

Here: F: female, M: male, : estrogene, X, Y, Z, W: sex chromosomes.