Table 2: Concentrations (in mol/L) of micronutrients that can increase genomic stability in traditional cell-culture media and FBS versus human serum.

MicronutrientsCell culture medium* 10% FBS**Mean human serum concentration***Status cell-culture medium versus
MEMDMEML-15M-199HAM F-10HAM F-12RPMI-1640DMEM/HAM F12human serum


Vitamin A NANANA NANANANA 2.0Lower
Vitamin B7 (Biotin) NANANA Trace Higher
Vitamin B9 Higher
Vitamin B12 NANANA 1.01.0 Trace Higher
Vitamin CNANANA NANANANATrace50.0Lower
Vitamin E NANANANANANANANA0.000330.0Unknown


Copper NANANANA NA Trace14.0Lower
Iron NA NA1.73.03.0NA1.63.023.0Lower
Magnesium NA Trace Lower/similar
SeleniumNANANANANANANA 11.0Lower
ZincNANANANA 3.0NA1.5Trace17.0Lower

NA: not available.
*MEM: minimum essential medium; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium; L-15: Leibovitzs medium 15; M-199: medium-199; HAM F-10 and F-12: Ham's nutrient mixture F-10 and F-12; RPMI-1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium; DMEM/HAM F-12: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F-12. The vitamin and mineral concentrations described were obtained from the webpages of the key suppliers.
**The values for the vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium concentration in FBS were found in [144], and the iron concentration in FBS was determined analytically.
***The references citing the micronutrient concentrations in human serum are as follows: vitamins A [145], B7 [146], B9 [147], B12 [148], C, and E [149]; Mg [150]; Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn [151]. The concentration of the vitamins and minerals in the media were obtained from the manufacturers.