Table 2: Molecular imaging in traditional Chinese medicine therapy for neurological disease.

Disease modelsCHM typeDrug or acupointsTracersModalityFunctional outcomeReferences

MCAO (rats)CHMASG IV-TMPZ 18F-FDGPETEnhanced functional recovery and glucose metabolism[31]
MCAO (rats)CHMCXQ-PUE 18F-FDGPETRecovery glucose metabolism,
reduced infarction volume
[32]
MCAO (rats)CHMBAI-JASNULLDWI-MRIEnhanced cerebral ischemia injury repair[34]
MCAO (rats)ACUDU14, 20
LI10, ST36
NULLDTI-MRIImproved neurons regeneration[35]
WD (human)ACUDu20, 23, EXH-
N3, PC6, Sp6
NULLDTI-MRIImproved functional recovery[36]
Stroke (human) ACULI 14, LI11NULLfMRIEnhanced functional recovery[37]
Stroke (human)CHMCGNULLT2W-MRIAmeliorated brain edema[38]
MCAO (rats)ACU GV20NULL DWI-MRIAlleviated brain oedema[39]
MCAO (rats)ACUGV20, GV26 18F-FDG DWI-MRI and PETImproved metabolic recovery, reduced the injuryvolume[40]
AD (mice)CHMEvodiamine 18F-FDG PET/CTImproved glucose uptake and cognitive abilities[41]
AD (rats)CHMFuzhisan 18F-FDGPETAmeliorated glucose metabolism of brain[42]
AD (human)CHMFuzhisan 18F-FDGPETIncreased rCMRglc[43]
AD (human)ACUST36, 40, HT7, KI3NULLfMRIImproved cognitive function[44]
AD (human)ACULiv3, LI4NULL fMRIEnhanced cognitive recovery[45]
PD (human)ACUMS4, 6, 9, 14 18F-FDG PETImprove cerebral glucose metabolism[46]
PD (human)ACUMS4, 6, 8, 9, 14 99mTc-E, 9mTc-T4SPECTIncreased rCBF[47]
PD (mice)ACUPC 7 123I -IBZMSPECTAttenuated neuronal damage[48]

MCAO: middle cerebral artery occlusion; WD: wallerian degeneration; AD: Alzheimer’s disease; PD: Parkinson’s disease; CHM: Chinese herb medicine; ACU: acupuncture; ASG IV: Astragaloside IV; TMPZ: tetramethylpyrazine; CXQ-PUE: chuanxiongzine and puerarin; BAI-JAS: baicalin and jasminoidin; DU20: Baihui; DU14: Dazhui; LI10: Shousanli; ST36: Zusanli; Du 23: Shangxin; EXHN3: Yintang; PC6: Neiguan; Sp6: Sanyingjiao; LI11: Quch; LI14: Binao; CG: cerebralcare granule; GV20: Baihu; GV26: Shuigou; HT7: Shenmen; ST36: Zusanii; ST40; Fenglong; KI3: Taixi; Liv3: Taichong; LI4: Hegu; MS6: the anterior oblique meridian of the vertex to temple; MS4: the lateral III meridian on forehead; MS8: the lateral I meridian of the vertex; MS9: the lateral II meridian of the vertex; MS14: lower-lateral meridian of the occiput; MS8: the lateral I meridian of the vertex; PC: Daling; [18F] FDG: 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose; 99mTc-E 99mTc-ECD: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer; 99mTc-T4: 99mTc-TRODAT-4; [123I] IBZM: 123I-iodobenzamide; rCMRglc: regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption; rCBF: regional cerebral blood flow.