Table 2: Determination of PCPs in biological and environmental samples.

AnalytesSamplesExtractionDeterminationAnalytical parametersReference

Triclosan and triclocarban Wastewater and tap waterIL-DLLMELC-MS2Recovery: 70–103%
LODs: 0.04–0.58 μg·L−1
TriclocarbanWastewater effluentsSBSELC-MS2Recovery: 92–96%
LOQ: 10 ng·L−1
UV filters: BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, BP-6, and BP-8 River water and wastewaterSPE LC-MS2Recovery: 83–105%
LOQs: 1–32 ng·L−1
Benzotriazoles (UVP, UV 329, UV 326, UV 328, UV 327, UV 571, UV 360)Coastal marine water and wastewaterOn-line SPE UHPLC-MS2Recovery: 65–94%
LODs: 0.6–4.1 ng·L−1
BP-1, BP-3, BP-8, OC, OD-PABA Triclocarban, triclosan Methylparaben, ethylparaben, benzylparaben, propylparabenSurface water and wastewatersSPEUHPLC-MS2Recovery: 20–101%
LODs: 20–200 ng·L−1
53 multiclass emerging pollutants (UV filters and insect repellents, among others)Tap water, surface water and wastewaterSPELC-MS2Recovery > 60%
LODs: 0.3–30 ng·L−1
4-hydroxybenzophenone BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, and BP-8 Sediments and sludgeLLELC-MS2Recovery: 70–116%
LOQs: 0.06–1.65 ng·g−1
Biocides, UV filters, and benzothiazoles Sludge samplePLELC-MS2Recovery: 74–119%[117]
Triclosan and triclocarban methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and benzyl paraben OD-PABA, OC, PMDSA, BP-1, BP-3, BP-8Sewage sludgePLEUHPLC-MS2Recovery: 15–100%
LODs < 8 ng·g−1
PBSA, BP-3, OC, OD-PABA, BP-4, 4-MBC, BM-DBM, PDT, and IAMCWater environmentSPELC-MS2Recovery: 63–102%
LODs: 7–46 ng·L−1
Benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, 4,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, ethyl-4-aminobenzoate, 2-ethylhexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor, 3-benzylidene-camphorFishEthyl acetate, n-heptane, and waterLC-MSRecovery > 72%
LODs: 78–205 ng·g−1  
1.8–5.3 μg·kg−1
Antimicrobials, preservatives, and benzotriazole UV stabilizersFish HSSEUFLC-MS2Recovery > 70%
MDLs: 179–266 ng·g−1

LC: liquid chromatography; UHPLC: ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography; UFLC: ultra fast liquid chromatography; QqQ: triple quadrupole; IT: ion trap; LIT: lineal ion trap; ESI: electrospray ionization; APCI: atmospheric pressure chemical ionization; NI: negative ion mode of ionisation; PI: positive ion mode of ionisation; MRM: multiple-reaction monitoring; SRM: selected reaction monitoring.
IL: ionic liquid; LLE: liquid-liquid extraction; SDME: single drop microextraction; DLLME: dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; SBSE: stir bar sorptive extraction; MISPE: molecularly imprinted polymer extraction; UAE: ultrasound-assisted extraction; PLE: pressurised liquid extraction; MAE: microwave-assisted extraction; HSSE: high-speed solvent extraction.
LOQ: limit of quantification; LOD: limit of detection; MDL: method detection limit.
OC: octocrylene; PMDSA: 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid; OD-PABA: octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid; BP-1: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone; BP-2: 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone; BP-3: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-4: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid; BP-6: 2,2′-dihydroxy-4,4′-methoxybenzophenone; BP-8: 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BM-DBM: butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane; IAMC: isoamyl methoxycinnamate; 4-MBC: 3-methylbenzylidene camphor; PDT: phenyldibenzimidazoletetrasulfonic acid.