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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 684154, 6 pages
Research Article

The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

1Center for the Study of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 19 July 2013; Revised 16 September 2013; Accepted 16 September 2013

Academic Editor: Esperanza Angeles Martinez-Mier

Copyright © 2013 Fouad H. Al-Bayaty et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at . Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was cigarettes; the mean duration was years. Relatively low BOP values ( ) and moderate plaque indexes ( ) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (  ng/dL), haptoglobin (  mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (  mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.