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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 684930, 7 pages
Research Article

Sonodynamic Excitation of Rose Bengal for Eradication of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Materials, Ariel University Center of Samaria, 40700 Ariel, Israel
2The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, 52900 Ramat-Gan, Israel

Received 24 July 2012; Revised 26 August 2012; Accepted 24 September 2012

Academic Editor: Tim Maisch

Copyright © 2013 Faina Nakonechny et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy based on photosensitizers activated by illumination is limited by poor penetration of visible light through skin and tissues. In order to overcome this problem, Rose Bengal was excited in the dark by 28 kHz ultrasound and was applied for inactivation of bacteria. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the sonodynamic technique is effective for eradication of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The net sonodynamic effect was calculated as a 3-4 log10 reduction in bacteria concentration, depending on the cell and the Rose Bengal concentration and the treatment time. Sonodynamic treatment may become a novel and effective form of antimicrobial therapy and can be used for low-temperature sterilization of medical instruments and surgical accessories.