BioMed Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Teratogenic Potential of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Zebrafish Model

Table 1

Malformation effects of antiepileptic drugs on zebrafish.

Embryo numbers ( )Malformation in embryos ( )
TreatedLethal (%)Normal (%)ObservedHeadTailHeartYolkScoliosisGrowth retardation1Teratogenicity

Carbamazepine
 2 mM1010 (100%)0
 1 mM1612 (75%)0 (0%)40 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)4 (100%)4 (100%)
 0.5 mM1910 (53%)1 (11%)90 (0%)0 (0%)4 (44%)0 (0%)1 (11%)6 (67%)8 (89%)
 0.25 mM102 (20%)5 (50%)80 (0%)0 (0%)2 (25%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (13%)3 (38%)
 0.1 mM207 (35%)9 (45%)130 (0%)1 (8%)3 (23%)0 (0%)1 (8%)2 (15%)4 (31%)

Lacosamide
 10 mM147 (50%)0 (0%)7 0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 0 (0%)7 (100%)7 (100%)b
 5 mM2614 (54%)2 (8%)120 (0%)2 (17%)7 (58%)0 (0%)4 (33%)3 (25%)10 (83%)b
 2.5 mM103 (30%)3 (30%)7 0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (14%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (43%)4 (57%)b
 1 mM265 (19%)16 (62%)210 (0%)1 (5%)1 (5%)0 (0%)1 (5%)3 (14%)5 (24%)
 0.5 mM254 (16%)20 (80%)210 (0%)1 (5%)1 (5%)0 (0%)1 (5%)1 (5%)2 (10%)a

Lamotrigine
 1 mM255 (20%)7 (28%)201 (5%)1 (5%)8 (40%)6 (30%)7 (35%)5 (25%)13 (65%)b
 0.5 mM256 (24%)10 (40%)191 (5%)2 (11%)4 (21%)5 (26%)2 (11%)2 (11%)9 (47%)
 0.25 mM152 (13%)12 (80%)130 (0%)1 (8%)0 (0%)1 (8%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (8%)
 0.1 mM259 (36%)12 (48%)160 (0%)0 (0%)3 (19%)2 (13%)0 (0%)0 (0%)4 (25%)
 0.05 mM259 (36%)16 (64%)16 0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)a

Topiramate
 50 mM108 (80%)0 (0%)20 (0%)0 (0%)2 (100%)2 (100%)1 (50%)1 (50%)2 (100%)
 10 mM1610 (63%)4 (25%)60 (0%)0 (0%)2 (33%)1 (17%)2 (33%)1 (17%)2 (33%)
 5 mM153 (20%)5 (33%)120 (0%)0 (0%)4 (33%)1 (8%)1 (8%)3 (25%)7 (58%)
 1 mM145 (36%)3 (21%)90 (0%)0 (0%)6 (67%)2 (22%)2 (22%)2 (22%)6 (67%)
 0.5 mM153 (20%)9 (60%)120 (0%)1 (8%)3 (25%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (25%)

Ethosuximide
 100 mM1515 (100%)0
 50 mM159 (60%)2 (0%)60 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)4 (67%)4 (67%)
 10 mM157 (47%)1 (7%)80 (0%)0 (0%)7 (88%)0 (0%)0 (0%)6 (75%)7 (88%)
 5 mM156 (40%)9 (60%)90 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 1 mM156 (40%)9 (60%)90 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)

Levetiracetam
 100 mM146 (43%)7 (50%)80 (0%)1 (13%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (13%)1 (13%)
 50 mM156 (40%)9 (60%)90 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 10 mM105 (50%)5 (50%)50 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 5 mM156 (40%)9 (60%)90 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 1 mM157 (47%)7 (47%)80 (0%)0 (0%)1 (13%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (13%)

Valproic acid
 100  M1212 (100%)0
 50  M203 (15%)4 (20%)1713 (76%)13 (76%)b
 25  M202 (10%)1 (5%)1817 (94%)17 (94%)b
 12.5  M203 (15%)13 (65%)174 (24%)4 (24%)a
 6.25  M203 (15%)15 (75%)171 (5%)2 (12%)2 (12%)a

1% DMSO282 (7%)26 (93%)280 (0%)0 (0%)1 (4%)0 (0%)1 (4%)0 (0%)2 (7%)

1: including unhatched embryo at 72 hours post-fertilization.
“—” Indicated the numbers not determined.
a,bDifferent characters indicate significant difference within drugs (<0.05).

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