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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 737358, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/737358
Research Article

Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

1Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, 520 W Street NW, Numa Adams Building, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2Laboratory of Anthropology, Biochemistry, Neuroscience and Primates' Behavior (LABINECOP), Federal University of Tocantins, Avenida NS 15 ALC NO 14 109 Norte, 77001-090 Palmas, TO, Brazil
3Graduate School of Animal Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Brasilia, Darcy Ribeiro Campus, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil
4Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroscience and Behavior, University of Brasilia, Darcy Ribeiro Campus, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil
5Graduate School of Veterinary, Federal University of Uberlândia, Rua Ceará S/N Bloco 2D Campus Umuarama, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

Received 22 October 2013; Accepted 18 November 2013

Academic Editor: Hisao Nishijo

Copyright © 2013 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.