Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 738705, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/738705
Research Article

What Are the Barriers Which Discourage 15-16 Year-Old Girls from Participating in Team Sports and How Can We Overcome Them?

1Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
2Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK
3Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK

Received 18 April 2013; Accepted 31 July 2013

Academic Editor: Yvonne F. Heerkens

Copyright © 2013 Abigail R. Wetton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. B. Strong, R. M. Malina, C. J. R. Blimkie et al., “Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 732–737, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Jiménez-Pavón, J. Kelly, and J. J. Reilly, “Associations between objectively measured habitual physical activity and adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. J. Daley, R. J. Copeland, N. P. Wright, A. Roalfe, and J. K. H. Wales, “Exercise therapy as a treatment for psychopathologic conditions in obese and morbidly obese adolescents: a randomized, controlled trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 2126–2134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. U. Ekelund, S. Brage, H. Besson, S. Sharp, and N. J. Wareham, “Time spent being sedentary and weight gain in healthy adults: reverse or bidirectional causality?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 612–617, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Choi, Femininity and the Physically Active Woman, Routledge, London, UK, 2000.
  6. G. A. Bloom, T. M. Loughead, and J. Newin, “Team building for youth sport,” Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 44–47, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. P. T. Katzmarzyk and R. M. Malina, “Contribution of organized sports participation to estimated daily energy expenditure in youth,” Pediatric Exercise Science, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 378–386, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. E. Wickel and J. C. Eisenmann, “Contribution of youth sport to total daily physical activity among 6- to 12-yr-old boys,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1493–1500, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Olds, J. Dollman, and C. Maher, “Adolescent sport in Australia: who, when, where and what?” ACHPER Australia Healthy Lifestyles Journal, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. L. Booth, A. D. Okely, T. Chey, and A. Bauman, “Patterns of activity energy expenditure among Australian adolescents,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 246–258, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  11. Sport England, Sport England Strategy: 2008–2011, Sport England, London, UK, 2008.
  12. Sport England, “Sport England active survey 5: 2010-2011,” 2010, http://www.sportengland.org/research/active_people_survey/aps5.aspx.
  13. A. R. Ness, S. D. Leary, C. Mattocks et al., “Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 476–484, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. F. Janz, S. Kwon, E. M. Letuchy et al., “Sustained effect of early physical activity on body fat mass in older children,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Jago, L. Davis, J. McNeill et al., “Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, article 91, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. S. Pearce, L. Basterfield, K. D. Mann, K. N. Parkinson, A. J. Adamson, and J. J. Reilly, “Early predictors of physical activity and sedentary behavior in 9 year old children: the Gateshead Millennium Study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6, Article ID e37975, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. Women’s Sport and Fitness Foundation, “The active people survey 2009-10,” 2011, http://www.wsff.org.uk/.
  18. T. Tännsjö and C. M. Tamburrini, Value in Sport: Elitism, Nationalism, Gender Equality and the Scientific Manufacture of Winners, E and FN Spon, London, UK, 2000.
  19. T. Chandler, M. Cronin, and W. Vamplew, Sport and Physical Education: The Key Concepts, Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2007.
  20. H. Grappendorf, “Where we've been, where we are, where we're going: girls and women in sport and physical activity,” Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 93–94, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Slater and M. Tiggemann, “‘Uncool to do sport’: a focus group study of adolescent girls' reasons for withdrawing from physical activity,” Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 619–626, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Hargreaves, Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women’s Sports, Routledge, London, UK, 1994.
  23. P. De Knop, B. Skirstad, L. M. Engstrom, and M. R. Weiss, Worldwide Trends in Youth Sport, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill, USA, 1996.
  24. Department of Health, “Obesity,” 2011, http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/category/policy-areas/public-health/obesity-healthy-living/.
  25. Department of Culture, Media and Sport, “Creating a sporting habit for life,” 2012, http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/creating_a_sporting_habit_for_life.pdf.
  26. B. Carli, “What forces affect our efforts in development and management of the moving body,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women, Melbourne, Australia, 1993.
  27. S. Biddle, J. Sallis, and N. Cavill, Young and Active? Young People and Health Enhancing Physical Activity: Evidence and Implications, Health Education Authority, London, UK, 1998.
  28. D. Penney, Gender and Physical Education: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions, Routledge, London, UK, 2002.
  29. J. Wright and A. Dewar, “On pleasure and pain: women speak out about physical activity,” in Researching Women and Sport, B. Humberstone and G. Clarke, Eds., pp. 80–96, Macmillan Press, London, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  30. T. O'Donovan and D. Kirk, “Reconceptualizing student motivation in physical education: an examination of what resources are valued by pre-adolescent girls in contemporary society,” European Physical Education Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 71–91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Qu and J. Dumay, “The qualitative research interview,” Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 238–264, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  32. G. R. Gibbs, Analyzing Qualitative Data: Sage Qualitative Research Kit, Sage Publications, London, UK, 2007.
  33. J. M. Corbin and A. C. Strauss, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2008.
  34. J. Banas, “Women athletes in male dominated sports,” serendip, 2002, http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/local/scisoc/sports02/papers/jbanas.html.
  35. S. Y. S. Kimm, N. W. Glynn, R. P. Mcmahon, C. C. Voorhees, R. H. Striegel-Moore, and S. R. Daniels, “Self-perceived barriers to activity participation among sedentary adolescent girls,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 534–540, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. D. Lirgg, “Effects of same-sex versus coeducational physical education on the self-perceptions of middle and high school students,” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 324–334, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Graydon, “Self-confidence and self-esteem in physical education and sport,” in Researching Women and Sport, B. Humberstone and G. Clarke, Eds., Macmillan Press, London, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  38. L. B. Robbins, N. J. Pender, and A. S. Kazanis, “Barriers to physical activity perceived by adolescent girls,” Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 206–212, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. A. Daniels, “The indivisibility of women athletes in magazines for teen girls,” Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 14–24, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. C. Duncan, “Sports photographs and sexual difference: images of women and men in the1984 and 1988 Olympic Games,” Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22–41, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. C. Duncan and M. A. Messner, “The media image of sport and gender,” in MediaSport, L. A. Wenner, Ed., pp. 170–195, Routledge, London, UK, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. J. Kane and H. J. Lenskyj, “Media treatment of female athletes: issues of gender and sexualities,” in Mediasport, L. A. Wenner, Ed., pp. 186–201, Routledge, London, UK, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Williams and J. Bedward, “Gender, culture and the generation gap: student and teacher perceptions of aspects of national curriculum physical education,” Sport, Education and Society, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 53–66, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. M. Cardon, R. van Acker, J. Seghers, K. de Martelaer, L. L. Haerens, and I. M. M. de Bourdeaudhuij, “Physical activity promotion in schools: which strategies do schools (not) implement and which socioecological factors are associated with implementation?” Health Education Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 470–483, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus