Alleviation of Hyperglycemia Induced Vascular Endothelial Injury by Exenatide Might Be Related to the Reduction of Nitrooxidative Stress
Treatment with exenatide attenuated thoracic aortic histological changes in DM rats. (a) HE staining (×40). (b) vWF immunohistochemistry staining (×40). (c) Scanning electron microscopic observation (×500, ×1000, and ×3000). In DM group, the vascular endothelium and internal elastic membrane were severely damaged. There were less vWF positive particles and the continuity of the vWF positive thoracic aorta wall was interrupted. Endothelial cells were atrophic, cell junctions were damaged, moth-eaten injury was serious in cell membrane, mitochondria were swelling, lamellar cristae disappeared, and matrix was diluted. Treatment with exenatide improved the vascular endothelium in DM rats. Smooth muscle cells were almost normal in all groups.