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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 123079, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/123079
Research Article

Peripheral Blood WT1 Expression Predicts Relapse in AML Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

1Unit of Blood Disease and Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, AO Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Ospedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2Chair of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Univeristy of Brescia, Laboratorio Analisi, AO Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Ospedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy
3Division of Hematology, AO Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Ospedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy

Received 17 June 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 17 August 2014

Academic Editor: Alessandro Isidori

Copyright © 2014 Michele Malagola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To evaluate if WT1 expression may predict relapse after allo-SCT, we analyzed WT1 levels on peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) before and after allo-SCT in 24 AML patients with WT1 overexpression at diagnosis. Five copies of WT1/ABL × 104 from PB were identified as the threshold value that correlated with relapse after allo-SCT. The same correlation was not identified when WT1 expression was assessed from bone marrow (BM). Eight out of 11 (73%) patients with a pre-allo-SCT PB-WT1 ≥ 5 and 4/13 (31%) patients with a pre-allo-SCT PB-WT1 < 5 relapsed, respectively (P = 0.04). The incidence of relapse was higher in patients with PB-WT1 ≥ 5 measured after allo-SCT, at the 3rd (56% versus 38%; P = 0.43) and at the 6th month (71% versus 20%; P = 0.03). Patients with pretransplant PB-WT1 < 5 had significantly better 2-year OS and LFS than patients with a PB-WT1 ≥ 5 (81% versus 0% and 63% versus 20%) (P = 0.02). Our data suggest the usefulness of WT1 monitoring from PB to predict the relapse in allotransplanted AML patients and to modulate the intensity of conditioning and/or the posttransplant immunosuppression in an attempt to reduce the posttransplant relapse risk.